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Wīwī/Sea Rush Juncus krausii

Native. Not threatened.

As with some other rushes, the Māori name for this species is lumped together under Wīwī. In this Ramsar site, it is the most common species, but in the salt marsh area it endures competition, some native, some exotic and frequently only encountered infrequently.


There are presently none of these plants in the Dune Garden, but it is found in ephemeral dune wetlands at a number of points along this coast and is widespread throughout Aotearoa New Zealand in various saltwater habitats.

It is also found throughout Australia, Southern Africa and South America and because the stems are fibrous they are used by indigenous Australians and the Zulu people of South African to make sleeping mats, baskets and crafts. Even in some areas, fishing line.

Because of its usefulness, it is cultivated and managed to ensure a regular supply. Little used here as Harakeke/New Zealand Flax is a readily available fibre and has a greater range of uses because of its larger size and strength.

NIWA-juncus kraussii factsheet


iNaturalist-Juncus kraussii

NZPCN-juncus kraussii australiensis

Purua Grass Bolboschoenus caldwellii

Native. Not threatened.


Also known by its alternative name of Caldwell's Club Rush this is an annual grass, which in winter dies down leaving only the detritus from the past summer’s growth. It occupies a large area of the salt marsh immediately south of Sunset Walkway and is the dominant species that is easily visible from the viewing platform on Darwick Street throughout summer and autumn.

It is a coastal-loving species associated with Estuaries and lowland saline areas and in some locations can occur in pasture bordering its favoured habitat. It is also found in Australia.

The main spike bares three to six red-brown spikelets which develop tiny flowers between October and January. A nut-like fruit appears between December and May which, because of the volume produced soon creates dense patched. They are believed to be dispersed mainly by water but also by wind.


NZPCN-bolboschoenus caldwellii



Purua Grass
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